New paper provides insights into the logic of neurotrophin signaling through the p75 neurotrophin receptor

Cell Reports publishes today our latest paper describing a structure-function map of the death domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (Charalampopoulos et al. 2012)

Structural determinants underlying signaling specificity in the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) are poorly characterized and it is unclear whether different signaling outputs can be genetically dissociated. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), also known as TNFRSF16, is a key regulator of trophic and injury responses in the nervous system. In this paper, we describe a genetic approach to dissect p75NTR signaling and decipher its underlying logic. Structural determinants important for regulation of cell death, NF-kB and RhoA pathways were identified in the p75NTR death domain. Pro-apoptotic and pro-survival pathways mapped onto non-overlapping epitopes, demonstrating that different signaling outputs can be genetically separated in p75NTR. Dissociation of JNK and caspase-3 activities indicated that JNK is necessary but not sufficient for p75NTR-mediated cell death. RIP2 recruitment and RhoGDI release were mechanistically linked, indicating that competition for DD binding underlies cross-talk between NF-kB and RhoA pathways in p75NTR signaling. These results provide new insights into the logic of p75NTR signaling and pave the way for a genetic dissection of p75NTR function and physiology.

Read the full paper HERE.

New paper reveals critical role of GFRa1 signaling in the development and function of the main olfactory system

The Journal of Neuroscience publishes today our paper on the role of the GDNF receptor GFRa1 in the main olfactory system (Marks et al. 2012). In this work, we investigated the consequences of GFRα1 deficiency for mouse olfactory system development and function.

GDNF and its receptor GFRα1 are prominently expressed in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory bulb (OB), but their importance for olfactory system development has been unknown. In the OE, we found that GFRα1 was expressed in basal precursors, immature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), but was excluded from mature OSNs. The OE of newborn Gfra1 knock-out mice was thinner and contained fewer OSNs, but more dividing precursors, suggesting deficient neurogenesis. Immature OSN axon bundles were enlarged and associated OECs increased, indicating impaired migration of OECs and OSN axons. In the OB, GFRα1 was expressed in immature OSN axons and OECs of the nerve layer, as well as mitral and tufted cells, but was excluded from GABAergic interneurons. In newborn knock-outs, the nerve layer was dramatically reduced, exhibiting fewer axons and OECs. Bulbs were smaller and presented fewer and disorganized glomeruli and a significant reduction in mitral cells. Numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-, calbindin-, and calretinin-expressing interneurons were also reduced in newborn mice lacking Gfra1. At birth, the OE and OB of Gdnf knock-out mice displayed comparable phenotypes. Similar deficits were also found in adult heterozygous Gfra1+/− mutants, which in addition displayed diminished responses in behavioral tests of olfactory function. We conclude that GFRα1 is critical for the development and function of the main olfactory system, contributing to the development and allocation of all major classes of neurons and glial cells.

Read the full paper HERE.

New paper reveals role of activin receptor ALK7 in female reproduction

The FASEB Journal has published our paper on the role of the activin receptor ALK7 in the control of female reproduction (Sandoval-Guzman et al. 2012). In this work, we investigated the expression and function of the activin receptor ALK7 in the female reproductive axis using Alk7-knockout mice.

Alk7-knockout females showed delayed onset of puberty and abnormal estrous cyclicity, had abnormal diestrous levels of FSH and LH in serum, and their ovaries showed premature depletion of follicles, oocyte degeneration, and impaired responses to exogenous gonadotropins. In the arcuate nucleus, mutant mice showed reduced expression of Npy mRNA and lower numbers of Npy-expressing neurons than wild- type controls. Alk7 knockouts showed a selective loss of arcuate NPY/AgRP innervation in the medial preoptic area, a key central regulator of reproduction. These results indicate that ALK7 is an important regulator of female reproductive function and reveal a new role for activin signaling in the control of hypothalamic gene expression and wiring. Alk7 gene variants may contribute to female reproductive disorders in humans, such as polycystic ovary syndrome.

Read the full paper HERE.

New review on p75NTR signaling in nervous system injury out in Trends in Neurosciences

Our review on p75 neurotrophin signaling in nervous system injury has been made available as a paper in press in the Trends In Neurosciences web site.

Injury or insult to the adult nervous system often results in reactivation of signaling pathways that are normally only active during development. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is one such signaling molecule whose expression increases markedly following neural injury in many of the same cell types that express p75NTR during development. A series of studies during the past decade has demonstrated that p75NTR signaling contributes to neuronal and glial cell damage, axonal degeneration and dysfunction during injury and cellular stress. Why the nervous system reacts to injury by inducing a molecule that aids the demise of cells and axons is a biological paradox that remains to be explained satisfactorily. On the other hand, it may offer unique therapeutic opportunities for limiting the severity of nervous system injury and disease.

Read the full paper HERE.


New JCS paper reveals connection between MET and GDNF signaling in GABAergic interneuron development

The Journal of Cell Science publishes today our paper on the interaction between MET and GDNF signaling in the control of cortical GABAergic interneuron development (Perrinjaquet et al. 2011). This work demonstrates that responsiveness to GDNF in Gfra1 knock-out GABAergic interneurons can be restored upon addition of soluble GFRa1. As these neurons express neither RET nor NCAM, this result is only compatible with the existence of a novel transmembrane receptor partner for the GDNF-GFRa1 complex in GABAergic interneurons. Neither ErbB4 nor MET were found to fullfil this role. Unexpectedly, however, inhibition of MET (or its ligand HGF) per se promoted neuronal differentiation and migration and enhanced the activity of GDNF on GABAergic neurons. In agreement with this, Met mutant neurons showed enhanced responsiveness to GDNF and elevated levels of GFRa1 expression, both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel transmembrane receptor partner for the GDNF––GFRa1 complex and uncover an unexpected interplay between GDNF––GFRa1 and HGF––MET signaling in the early diversification of cortical GABAergic interneuron subtypes. Read the full paper HERE.

New paper linking SHP2 phosphatase to RET signaling out in the JBC

Our latest paper has been made available today at the Papers In Press site of the Journal of Biological Chemistry (Perrinjaquet et al. JBC 2010). This work identifies the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 as a novel direct interactor of the receptor tyrosine kinase RET. SHP2 is the first effector known to bind to phosphorylated Tyr687 in the juxtamembrane region of the receptor. SHP2 recruitment contributes to the ability of RET to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and promote survival and neurite outgrowth in primary neurons. Together with other findings, this work establishes SHP2 as a novel positive regulator of the neurotrophic activities of RET, and reveal Tyr687 as a critical platform for integration of RET signals. We anticipate that several other phospho-tyrosines of unknown function in neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases will also support similar regulatory functions. Read the full paper HERE.

KI 200 anniversary review out in BBRC

Honoring the 200 anniversary of the Karolinska Institute, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (BBRC) has published a special issue with a series of mini-reviews from KI scientists illustrating recent developments within some areas of biomedical research at the molecular level that have been actively pursued at KI. Our contribution, entitled “Beyond the cell surface: New mechanisms of receptor function“, discusses novel aspects of receptor signaling based on some of our recent investigations of the GDNF/GFRa1 signaling system.